Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai released the National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report) today (November 26, 2012). The latest census, prepared by the Department of Statistics, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) shows annual population growth at 1.35% compared to 2.25% growth in previous census conducted in 2001. The report shows female population rising to 51.5 percent while the male population is 48.5 percent.
The Census 2011 report states there are 125 caste/ethnic groups. Chhetri is the largest caste/ethnic groups having 16.6% (4,398,053) of the total population followed by Brahman-Hill (12.2 percent ; 3,226,903), Magar (7.1percent ; 1,887,733), Tharu (6.6percent ; 1,737,470), Tamang (5.8 percent ; 1,539,830), Newar (5.0 percent ; 1,321,933), Kami (4.8 percent ; 1,258,554), Musalman (4.4 percent ; 1,164,255), Yadav (4.0 percent ; 1,054,458) and Rai (2.3 percent ; 620,004).
Nepal population growth trend
1. Household information
1.1 Population and Households: Population of Nepal as of the census day (June 22, 2011)
stands at 26,494,504 showing population growth rate of 1.35 per annum. Similarly, Total
number of households in the country is 5,427,302 with 5,423,297 individual households and
4,005 institutional households (Barracks, Hostels, Monasteries etc).
1.2 Ownership of housing units: Altogether, 85.26 percent of the households reside in their
own house whereas 12.81 percent in rented, 0.63 percent in institutional and 1.30 percent
in other arrangements. In urban areas, 40.22 percent live in rented house. Kathmandu
district has the highest percentage (58.65) of households living in rented house.
1.3 Type of foundation of house: Nearly ten percent (9.94 %) of total households live in houses
with the foundation having RCC pillar, 17.57 percent households in house with foundation
made up of cement-bonded bricks, 24.9 percent in wooden pillar, 44.21 percent in mudbonded bricks and 2.33 in other type of foundations. In urban areas, 28.42 percent of the
households live in houses with the foundation having RCC pillars.
1.4 Type of outer wall: Highest number of households (41.38 percent) live in houses which has
outer wall made of mud bonded bricks or stone followed by outer wall made of cement
bonded bricks or stone(28.74 percent), bamboo wall (20.23 percent) and wood/planks (5.31
1.5 Roof of the house: Twenty Eight percent of the total households live in houses roofed with
galvanized sheet followed by tile/slate (26.68 percent), RCC (22.48 percent) and
thatched/straw roof (19.03 percent).
1.6 Source of drinking water: Tap/Piped water is the main source of drinking water for 47.78
percent of the total households. Tube well/hand pump is the main source of drinking water
for about 35 percent of the total households, while spout, uncovered well/kuwa and
covered well/kuwa are the main source for 5.74 percent, 4.71 percent and 2.45 percent
1.7 Usual fuel for cooking: About two-third of the total households (about 64 percent) use
Firewood as usual source of fuel for cooking followed by LPG (21.03 percent), cow dung
(10.38 percent). Bio-gas and Kerosene is used for cooking by 2.43 and 1.03 percent of the
1 total households respectively. Very few households (0.08 percent) use Electricity as usual
fuel for cooking. In urban areas, more than two third (67.68 percent) of the total households
use LPG as their usual fuel for cooking.
1.8 Source of lighting: More than two third (67.26 percent) of the total household’s main
source of lighting is electricity. Kerosene is used by 18.28 percent of the total households for
lighting while solar and bio-gas is source of light for 7.44 and 0.28 percent of the total
1.9 Toilet in the house: More than one third (38.17 percent) of the total households do not
have toilet in their houses.
1.10 Household facilities:
The percentage of households having various kinds of household facilities is tabulated as
Household facility Percentage of Households
Nepal Urban Rural
Radio 50.82 53.56 50.17
Television 36.45 60.67 30.66
Cable television 19.33 53.80 11.10
Computer 7.28 23.66 3.37
Internet 3.33 12.11 1.24
Telephone 7.37 22.66 3.72
Mobile phone 64.63 84.07 59.98
Motor 1.57 4.03 0.98
Motorcycle 9.58 23.62 6.23
Cycle 32.38 29.95 32.96
Other vehicle 0.68 0.65 0.69
Refrigerator 7.16 23.21 3.33
1.11 Female ownership of fixed assets: Altogether, 19.71 percent of households reported the
ownership of land or house or both in the name of female member of the household. In
urban areas, 26.77 percent of the households show female-ownership of fixed assets while
the percentage stands at 18.02 in rural areas.
1.12 Absent member in households: One in every four households (25.42%; 1.38 million
households) reported that at least one member of their household is absent or is living out
of country. Total number of absent population is found to be 1,921,494 against 762,181 in
2001. The highest proportion (44.81 percent) of absent population is from the age group
2 15 to 24 years. Gulmi, Arghakhanchi and Pyuthan districts reported the highest proportion
of their population being absent (staying abroad).
1.13 Household size: The average household size has decreased from 5.44 in 2001 to 4.88 in
2011 at the national level. The household size is recorded highest (6.44) in Rautahat district
and lowest (3.92) in Kaski.
2. Individual characteristics
2.1 Population size, growth and distribution: Population of Nepal as of the census day (June 22,
2011) stands at 26,494,504. The increment of population during the last decade is recorded
as 3,343,081 with an annual average growth rate of 1.35 percent. Terai constitutes 50.27
percent (13,318,705) of the total population while Hill and Mountain constitutes 43 percent
(11,394,007) and 6.73 percent (1,781,792) respectively. Among the five development
regions, Central development region has the highest population ( 36.45 percent) and far
western region records the lowest ( 9.63 percent).
2.2 Sex Ratio: Sex ratio (number of males per 100 females) at the national level has decreased
from 99.8 in 2001 to 94.2 in 2011. In abstract number, there are 796,422 more females
than males in the country. Sex ratio is highest (127) in Manang district and lowest (76) in
2.3 Population Density: Population density (average number of population per square
kilometer) at the national level is 180 compared to 157 in 2001. The highest population
density is found in Kathmandu district (4,416 person per square km) and lowest (3 person
per square km) in Manang district.
2.4 Population Growth in Districts: The fastest decadal population growth rate is found in
Kathmandu district (61.23 percent), and least in Manang ( -31.80 percent ). Altogether 27
districts including Manang, Khotang, Mustang, Terhathum, Bhojpur etc. recorded negative
population growth rate during the last decade.
2.5 Urban Population: The urban population (population residing in 58 municipalities)
constitutes 17 % (4,523,820) of the total population compared to 13.94% (3,227,879)
2.6 Working age population: The working age population (aged 15 to 59 years) has increased
from 54 percent (12,310,968) in 2001 to about 57 Percent (15,091,848) in 2011 showing
the population structure is shifting for enjoying demographic dividend in the country.
2.7 Household Head: Female-headed households in the country has increased by about 11
point percent from 14.87% in 2001 to 25.73% in 2011.
2.8 Caste/Ethnicity: There are 125 caste/ethnic groups reported in the census 2011. Chhetri is
the largest caste/ethnic groups having 16.6% (4,398,053) of the total population followed
by Brahman-Hill (12.2% ; 3,226,903), Magar (7.1% ; 1,887,733), Tharu (6.6% ; 1,737,470),
Tamang (5.8% ; 1,539,830), Newar (5.0% ; 1,321,933), Kami (4.8% ; 1,258,554), Musalman
(4.4% ; 1,164,255), Yadav (4.0% ; 1,054,458) and Rai (2.3% ; 620,004).
2.9 Mother Tongue: There are 123 languages spoken as mother tongue reported in census
2011. Nepali is spoken as mother tongue by 44.6 percent (11,826,953) of the total
population followed by Maithili (11.7% 3,092,530), Bhojpuri (6.0%; 1,584,958), Tharu
(5.8%; 1,529,875), Tamang (5.1%; 1,353,311), Newar (3.2%; 846,557), Bajjika (3.0%;
793,418), Magar (3.0%; 788,530), Doteli (3.0%; 787,827), Urdu (2.6%; 691,546).
2.10 Religion: There are ten types of religion categories reported in the census. Hinduism is
followed by 81.3 percent (21,551,492) of the population while Buddhism (9.0%;
2,396,099), Islam (4.4%; 1,162,370), , Kirat (3.1%; 807,169), Christianity (1.4%; 375,699),
Prakriti (0.5%; 121,982), Bon (13,006), Jainism (3,214), Bahai (1,283) and Sikhism (609).
2.11 Disability: About two percent (1.94%; 513,321) of the total population reported to have
some kind of disability. Physical disability constitutes 36.3 percent of the population with
disability followed by Blindness/Low Vision (18.5%), Deaf/Hard to hearing (15.4%), Speech
problem (11.5%), Multiple Disability (7.5%), Mental Disability (6%), Intellectual Disability
(2.9%) and Deaf-Blind (1.8%).
2.12 Literacy Rate: Overall literacy rate (for population aged 5 years and above) has increased
from 54.1 percent in 2001 to 65.9 percent in 2011. Male literacy rate is 75.1% compared
to female literacy rate of 57.4%. The highest literacy rate is reported in Kathmandu district
(86.3 %) and lowest in Rautahat (41.7%)
Download Census Report 2011
National Population Census
Central Bureau of Statistics